Tulipa is a genus of flowering plants in family Liliaceae, comprising about 150 species. It is native to southern Europe, north Africa, and Asia (from Anatolia and Iran in the west to the northeast of China). Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains and the steppes of Kazakhstan are the centers of diversity of the genus. It has a well-known common name Tulip.
Tulips provides an enormous range of flower color and shape, and they are classified by division. There are all together 16 divisions. The divisions are Single early; Double early; Triumph; Darwin hybrid; Single late; Lily-flowered; Fringed (Crispa); Viridiflora; Rembrandt; Parrot; Double late; Kaufmanniana; Fosteriana (Emperor); Griegii; Species (Botanical); and Multiflowering.
Tulips are indigenous to mountainous areas with temperate climates and requires a period of cool dormancy. They grow best in long cool springs and early summers, but are often grown as spring blooming annual plantings in warmer areas of the world. Tulip bulbs are normally planted in well-drained soil in late summer and autumn, in a depth of around 10-20 cm, depending on the type planted. May tulips benefit from being lifted up after flowering. The bulbs should be kept in a dark and dry place until they are planted out again in autumn. Hybrids of Darwin, Kaufmanniana, Greigii and Triumph can be left in the ground to naturalize.
Tulipa batalinii is native to Iran and Turkestan. It can grow to a height of 15 cm, bearing flowers in spring , usually around mid-April. Several cultivars including 'Apricot Jewel', 'Bright Jem', 'Bronze Charm', 'Red Gem' , and 'Yellow Jewel' are grown as ornamental plants.
Most of the modern hydrids are usually 40-50 cm tall. T.'Golden Apeldoorn' bears golden flowers in mid-spring, while T.'Queen of Night' bears single, silky, dark purple-brown flowers in late spring. T.'Queen of Bartigons' has salmon-pink flowers in late spring. There are also smaller tulips, such as T. praestans, which can grows to 30 cm tall, bears several orange-red flowers on each stems in early spring. T. humilis can grow to 25 cm tall, has grey-green leaves and star-shaped , deep pink flowers in early spring.
Tulips can be propagated through separation of offsets in summer. Pests and diseases of Tulipa are eelworms, slugs and snails, rot, tulip fire and viruses.