Pineapple is the edible fruit of a tropical terrestrial bromeliad. It is native to the southern part of Brazil, and Paraguay. This herbaceous perennial plant grows to 1.0 to 1.5 metres (3.3 to 4.9 ft) tall with 30 or more trough-shaped and pointed leaves 30 to 100 centimetres (1.0 to 3.3 ft) long, surrounding a thick stem. The pineapple is an example of a multiple fruit: multiple, helically-arranged flowers along the axis each produce a fleshy fruit that becomes pressed against the fruits of adjacent flowers, forming what appears to be a single fleshy fruit.

Pineapple can be eaten fresh or canned and is available as a juice or in juice combinations. It is used in desserts, salads, as a complement to meat dishes and in fruit cocktail. While sweet, it is known for its high acid content (perhaps malic and/or citric[citation needed]). Pineapples are the only bromeliad fruit in widespread cultivation. It is one of the most commercially important plants which carry out CAM photosynthesis.

The word pineapple in English was first recorded in 1398. At that time, "pineapple" actually referred to the pine cones of conifer trees. When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit, they called them pineapples. The term was first recorded in that sense in 1664 because of their resemblance to pine cone. Eventually the term pineapple remains with the tropical fruit, while the new term "pine cone", which was first recorded in 1694, came to replace the original meaning of pineapple.

In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi Indians of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was recorded by André Thevenet in 1555. The word comosus means "tufted" and refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called pine as well by laymen.

In Spanish, pineapples are called ananá or piña, principally in Hispanic American countries except Argentina. Many languages use the native term ananas. They have varying names in Indian languages: "Anaasa" in Telugu, annachi pazham in Tamil, anarosh in Bengali, and kaitha chakka in Malayalam. In Malay, pineapples are known as "nanas" or "nenas".

Southeast Asia dominates world production of pineapples. In 2001 Thailand produced 1.979 million tons, the Philippines 1.618 million tons while in the Americas, Brazil 1.43 million tons. Total world production in 2001 was 14.220 million tons. The primary exporters of fresh pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d'Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons.

At one time, most canned and fresh pineapples came from the cultivar 'Smooth Cayenne'. Since about 2000, the most common fresh pineapple fruit found in U.S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid hybrid that was developed in Hawaii in the early 1970s.

In commercial farming, flowering can be induced artificially, and the early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the development of a second crop of smaller fruits. Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new fruit-bearing plant will grow in a manner similar to that of a potato or onion, which will sprout from a cutting. Crowns are the primary method of propagation for home gardeners, though slips and suckers are preferred.

photo source
authorshipGérald Anfossi
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Pineapple, Victoria cultivarPineapple, Victoria cultivar
photo source
authorshipDavid Monniaux
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