Euonymus (Spindle, Spindle tree)
is a genus of deciduous and evergreen climber, shrubs and trees in the family Celastraceae, comprising 170 -180 species. It is mostly native to East Asia, extending to the Himalayas.
The leaves are opposite and simple ovoid, 2-15 cm long, usually with a finely serrated margin. The flowers occur in small groups, inconspicuous and of green or yellow shades. The fruit is a pink-red four- or five-valved pod-like berry, which splits open to reveal the fleshy-coated orange seeds. The seeds are eaten by frugivorous birds, which digest the fleshy seed coat and disperse the seeds in their droppings. The wood of some species are traditionally used for the making of spindles for spinning wool, thus the common name.
(Winter creeper or Fortune's spindle) is a species native to China, Korea and Japan. It is named after Robert Fortune, (16 Sept 1812 - 13 April 1880), a Scottish botanist and traveler best known for introducing tea plants from China to India. Euonymus fortunei
is a woody evergreen vine, growing to 20 m tall, climbing by means of small rootlets on the stems, similar to ivy. It has leaves that are arranged in opposite pairs, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, with a finely serrated margin. The flowers are inconspicuous, with four small greenish-yellow petals. The fruit is a four-lobed pale green pod-like berry, which splits open to reveal the fleshy-coated orange seeds, one seed in each lobe. It is a widely cultivated ornamental plant, with numerous cultivars selected for such traits as yellow, variegated and slow, dwarfed growth. It is also used as a groundcover or a vine to climb walls and trees. The compact 'Emerald Gaiety' has dark green leaves with broad white margins, which are tinged with red in autumn. the leaves of 'Silver Queen' are broadly-edged with cream-white.
is a deciduous shrub or small tree. It is native to much of Europe, and is commonly known as European spindle or common spindle. It can grow to 3-6 m tall, with a stem up to 20 cm in diameter. Its leaves are opposite, lanceolate or elliptical, and with a finely serrated margin. The leaves often turned into beautiful shades of bright-red and yellow colour in autumn. In late spring, the flowers which produced in cymes, are insect-pollinated. They are inconspicuous, small and yellowish green. The fruit which is red to purple or pink in color, ripen in autumn and the four lobes split open to reveal the fleshy orange seeds.
Euonymus grows well in sun or partial shade and in well-drained soil. Propagation is by ripe seed; greenwood cuttings and semi-ripe cuttings in summer. Pests and diseases are scale insects, leaf spot and mildew.
Euonymus fortunei radicans
Chris Barton/Gif absarnt