Chrysanthemum (Mums, chrysants)



Chrysanthemum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, comprising about 30 species. It is native to Asia and northeastern Europe. It is often called as mums and chrysants.

Chrysanthemums are a herbaceous annual and perennial plants, growing to 50 - 150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves and vast range of of flower color and shape. They are late-season flowering plants and are useful for cut flowers. There are many hybrids and thousands of cultivars developed for horticultural purposes. The color of flowers can be yellow, white, purple and red.

Chrysanthemum blooms are composed of many florets, each capable of producing a seed. The disk florets are in the center and ray florets are on the perimeter. The ray florets are imperfect flowers as they only possess the female reproductive organs. The disk florets have both the male and female reproductive organs and are considered perfect flowers.

Chrysanthemum blooms are divided into 13 different bloom forms by the US National Chrysanthemum Society, Inc.. The bloom forms are defined by the way in which the disk and ray florets are arranged.

Irregular Incurve: The blooms are the giants among the chrysanthemums. The disk florets are completely concealed while the ray florets curve inwardly to conceal the disk florets and also hang down to create a 'skirt'. The size of the flower can be as big as 20 cm.

Regular Incurve: The appearance of the flower is similar to the irregular incurves, but smaller blooms, with nearly perfect globular form. Disk florets are completely concealed. They are used to be known as 'Chinese'.

Intermediate Incurve: Both size and form of these blooms are in between the Irregular and Regular incurves. The florets are usually broader and in a more loosely compose. Disk florets are completely concealed.

Reflex: The ray florets are reflex outwards to create a mop-like appearance. Disk florets are completely concealed.

Decorative: The blooms are similar to reflex blooms but without the mop-like appearance. Disk florets are completely concealed. The ray florets usually don't radiate at more than a 90 degree angle to the stem.

Pompon: The blooms are globular, fully double and small in size.

Single/Semi-Double: There are between 1-7 rows of ray florets, usually radiating at not more than a 90 degree angle to the stem. Disk florets are completely exposed.

Anemone: The disk florets are prominently featured, quite often raised and overshadowing the ray florets.

Spoon: The ray florets are long and spatula-shaped. Disk florets are visible.

Quill: The ray florets are tube like and the disk florets are completely concealed.

Spider: The ray florets are tube like with hooked or barbed ends, hanging loosely around the stem. The disk florets are completely concealed.

Brush & Thistle: The ray florets are often tube like, and project all around the flower head, or project parallel to the stem. The disk florets may be visible.

Exotic: These blooms defy classification as they possess the attributes of more than one of the other twelve bloom types.

In some parts of Asia, yellow or white chrysanthemums flowers are boiled to make a sweet drink, called chrysanthemum tea. The chrysanthemum is also one of the 'Four Gentlemen' of China, the other three being the plum blossum, orchid, and bamboo. In Japan, The Chrysanthemum Throne is the name given to the position of Japanese emperor.

In some countries of Europe and Asia, white chrysanthemums are symbolic of death and grief and are only used for funerals or on graves.

Chrysanthemums grows well in full sun and well-drained soil. Taller plants needs staking. Propagation is by seed in spring or by division in autumn or spring. Pests and diseases are aphids, capsid bugs, earwigs, grey mould, mildew and viruses.

ChrysanthemumsChrysanthemums
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysanthemum_%280883%29-Relic38.jpg
authorshipDarren Swim
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Chrysanthemum (Spoon)Chrysanthemum (Spoon)
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysanthemum_Dance.jpg
authorshipMike Peel
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Chrysanthemum (Pompon)Chrysanthemum (Pompon)
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysanthemum_morifolium_08NOV.jpg
authorshipmasaki ikeda
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Chrysanthemum morifolium (Irregular Incurve)Chrysanthemum morifolium (Irregular Incurve)
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysanthemum_morifolium_November_2007_Osaka_Japan.jpg
authorshipLaitche
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Chrysanthemum morifoliumChrysanthemum morifolium
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysanthemum_morifolium.jpg
authorshipJuni
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Chrysanthemum morifolium (Irregular Incurve)Chrysanthemum morifolium (Irregular Incurve)
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ChrysanthemumMorifolium8.jpg
authorshipFanghong
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ChrysanthemumChrysanthemum
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Korea-Chrysanthemum-01.jpg
authorshipneochicle
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ChrysanthemumChrysanthemum
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ChrysanthemumE4.jpg
authorshipElena Chochkova
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ChrysanthemumChrysanthemum
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:RO_BZ_Chrysanthemum.jpg
authorshipAndrei Stroe
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Chrysanthemum (spoon)Chrysanthemum (spoon)
photo sourcehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chrysanthemum_morifolium_j02.jpg
authorshipApple2000
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